Infinite and Eternal Mother of all Univrses
New Light in Cosmology: Dark is Dead (Matter and Energy)
Essay on Cosmology by John T. Cullen
Exogravitation--John T Cullen's innovative theory for a new cosmology now has a name, based on his view that Dark Energy is nothing more than old fashioned gravity, but with a stunning twist. This sweeping thought experiment explains dark matter, dark energy, and the accelerating expansion of the universe. Our view of the cosmos and our place in it now changes forever. This Second Edition updates the original article titled Crisis Among The Stars: Coming Shift in Cosmology.
To arrive seamlessly at this critical pivot in scientific history, John T. Cullen traces the history of cosmology and its recurring themes from ancient Greece through our own age. The author demonstrates a pattern of how we try to save doomed paradigms, as an existing theory gradually becomes at odds with newly observed data. Authorities add increasingly indefensible twists and convolutions to keep existing theory in line with the newest data. Eventually, like a rubber band snapping, an entirely new paradigm sweeps away the old theory.
For example, a shift occurred in ancient Roman times, when Claudius Ptolemaeus of Alexandria (Ptolemy, 90-168 CE) invented epicycles to salvage Aristotle's theory of planetary cycles in the crystal spheres of heaven, versus the observed and inexplicable backward motion of some planets; e.g., Mars in retrograde versus Jupiter.Also, the debate between proponents of a geocentric universe (with Earth as its center) and a heliocentric universe (with the sun as its center) raged from Classical Greece and Rome to quite recent times.
Our narrative follows a historical path on its way to calling for a new paradigm shift today. The Renaissance Sistine Chapel is a kind of theological missile submarine, with cosmology painted from creation to last judgment, and a surprising presence of pagan sibyls--another vain attempt to sidestep the need for human beliefs to catch up with newly observed facts.
Early Modern thinkers killed off the geocentric (Earth-centered universe) theory to which Christian authorities clung with deadly certainty. Tycho Brahe's detailed observations convinced Copernicus that the earth goes around the sun, a theory that nearly cost Galileo his life. Kepler and Newton separately invented the calculus, which offered a new understanding of orbital mechanics, and caused the long-held cycles and epicycles of Aristotle and Ptolemy to evaporate. Galileo showed that Jupiter has moons, proving not all things in the solar system go around the Earth. The result was the triumph of heliocentrism--until the 1920s, when a new paradigm shift, led by Edwin Hubble, proved the Milky Way is not the entire universe, and our sun is nowhere near the center, in an unthinkably large universe with myriad galaxies.
Today's Standard Model is alive and well at the core, but fraying around the fringes. Strange and incomprehensible (therefore indefensible) fixes like dark energy and dark matter abound, as experts try to salvage the single-universe model. Many cosmologists already suspect there are infinitely many universes in a much larger cosmos (motherverse, metaverse). Once all spurious attempts at fixes have failed, we can only adopt a radical paradigm shift--the admission, similar to Hubble's discoveries in the 1920s, that ours is not the only universe. There are vastly larger structures in which our universe is just like a grain of sand.
John T. Cullen's thinking stems from a simple insight about alleged dark energy. The universe is not only expanding, but inexplicably at an ever faster pace with no visible internal propellant, because an external force is acting on the universe. Dark energy is simply gravity. Our universe is being torn apart by the ambient gravity of an infinite, eternal motherverse engaged in an endless cycle in which universes are created, live with all their stars and inhabitants, and inevitably die to make way for the next iteration of the same.
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